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Trust Adminstrator

What is an Administrator of an Estate?

Managing the affairs and obligation of a recently departed is no easy task. That is why most people take the time to plan their estate. Estate planning, at its fundamental essence, is leaving a plan and instructions for those who survive you regarding what to do with the “stuff” you leave behind. People are living longer than ever before and, consequently, are leaving more behind. Often without a proper plan in place, the loved ones and family members left to organize and account all the leftover worldly possessions are hard pressed to do everything required from them by a probate court within the statutory time limits.

Dying without a will, only exacerbates this difficultly and lengthens the time it takes to administrator an estate. Bluntly, dying without a will, or dying with an invalid will, is never a preferential option. Most people already have a very limited understanding of the probate process, and if you throw intestate succession and administration, with all the accompanying issues and legal winkles, a difficult and trying process only becomes more so. As such, consult with an experienced Ohio estate planning attorney to either properly plan your estate so dying intestate doesn’t happen to you or, for those facing an instate administration, find out all the answers you need regarding what, how, and when to administrate an intestate estate.

What does dying intestate mean?

When a decedent does not have a valid will in existence at the time of death, a decedent is deemed to have died intestate and Ohio intestacy laws govern how estate assets are managed and distributed. There are two primary situations when a person is deemed to have died intestate, 1) there was no last will and testament, or 2) they had a last will and testament, but for some reason or another, it was found invalid.

Ohio intestacy laws may be avoided altogether with proper estate planning, a major aim of which is to ensure you have a will and that it is valid. It is important to note, however, that sometimes intestacy laws will control even if a valid will is subject to probate administration, an experienced estate planning attorney can inform you of these circumstances. Conversely, sometimes Ohio intestacy laws may not apply even if a decedent died intestate. As such, since the controlling law for dying without a last will and testament can vary dependent on circumstance, meeting with an estate planning and/or probate lawyer is highly recommended.

What is an administrator?

In the context of intestate estate administration, an administrator is, for the most part, functionally identical to an executor. Executors, however, are appointed in the last will and testament by the decedent while administrators are appointed by the probate court in the absence of an executor appointment. Note, however, that Ohio has explicit Ohio residency requirements for intestate administrators. Thus, out-of-state residents can only be named executors and cannot serve as administrators.

Why is an administrator needed, what do they do?

The duties of an administrator aren’t easy. The duties of an administrator are specific to each particular estate, however, there is a “core” group of duties and tasks each one must fulfill. Every administrator must:

  • Conduct of thorough search of decedent’s personal papers and attempt to create a complete picture of their finances and family structure.

 

  • Take possession, catalogue, and value all estate property.

 

  • Maintain and protect estate assets for the duration of the probate proceedings.

 

  • Directly notify creditors, debtors, financial institutions, utilities, and government agencies of decedent’s death.

 

  • Publish notices of decedent’s death, usually a newspaper obituary, which serves as notice and starts the clock running on the statute of limitations for creditor claims on the estate.

 

  • Pay or satisfy any outstanding debts or obligations of decedent.

 

  • Represent decedent during probate court proceedings.

 

  • Locate heirs and named beneficiaries and distribute respective assets at the appropriate time.

These duties occur during the probate process, which is a major reason why probate takes many months to complete. Especially within the context of intestate probate administration, where no preplanning, accounting, or collection of information regarding the decedent’s estate was likely done.

Because intestate administration is such a time-intensive and laborious process, many people take the time to plan their estate and attempt to avoid probate entirely. Often trusts are a good option to avoid probate. With trusts, estate assets can be distributed right away, no executor or administrator is needed, and many mornings, which otherwise would be spent in probate court, are freed for personal enjoyment. Contact an Ohio trust attorney to see if avoiding probate through the use of trusts is right for you and your family.

Disclaimer:

The information contained herein is general in nature, is provided for informational and educational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. The author nor Baron Law LLC cannot and does not guarantee that such information is accurate, complete, or timely. Laws of a particular state or laws that may be applicable in a given situation may impact the applicability, accuracy, or completeness of the preceding information. Further, federal and state laws and regulations are complex and subject to change. Changes in such laws often have material impact on estate planning and tax forecasts. As such, the author and Baron Law LLC make no warranties regarding the herein information or any results arising from its use. Furthermore, the author and Baron Law LLC disclaim any liability arising out of your use of, or any financial position taken in reliance on, such information. As always consult an attorney regarding your specific legal or tax situation.

Helping You and Your Loved Ones Plan for the Future

Security Deposit Blog

Security Deposits: A Practical Primer

People often have questions about things that are relevant to their jobs or lives. For landlords, a usual topic of conversation is security deposits. Previously, legal standards and procedures regarding landlords keeping security deposits was covered, but what do these rules mean in ordinary terms? The following are a few good tips for every landlord, a little bit of good advice in the right place often makes all the difference. But if you really want to get on the ball, save the most money, and protect yourself and your business, call an experienced attorney at Baron Law.

Be Upfront with the Tenant, Give them a Move-Out Letter

All good things must come to an end, lease agreement and tenancies are no different. So, in order to save time, stress, and avoid disputes over security deposits, using move-out letters is a good move. Move-out letters are tangible notice to tenants that they are ending the tenancy, good proof of breach for later on, and makes sure all parties are on the same page.

At minimum, your move-out letters should tell the tenant how the property/unit should be left, whether it should be cleaned, etc., explain the procedures and timing for final inspection of the premises, include the itemized deductions from the security deposit, if any, tell the tenant to return keys, provide a forwarding address for the security deposit, and explain the details of how any monies will be returned.

Move-out letters should be standard operating procedure for every landlord. If you are having trouble drafting your own letter or want to ensure every important point is covered, hire an experienced Cleveland attorney to do your drafting.

Itemizing a Security Deposit Withholding/Deduction

A recognized rule in Ohio is that any security deposit withholding or deduction must be itemized. The logic of this requirement is to make landlords give specific reasons to tenants why the security deposit is being withheld so tenants have the necessary information to decide whether or not to chase after the deposit via legal means. (It’s only fair, and the law is all about fairness.)

So, you know to itemize, but how is it done and what does it look like? Again, common sense is a good rule of thumb. If any ordinary person saw your itemized calculation, could they make sense of it? At minimum, take the total amount of the deposit, and in a basic list, give the identity, value, and reason for each deduction. For example, the following was found insufficient by a court:

 

2-Times Mowing Yard                 $    40.00

Wal-Mart                                        $    112.59

Rug Shampooer                            $     29.66

Cleaning Lady                               $      75.00

$   257.25”

Schaedler v. Shinkle, No. CA99-09-025, 2000 WL 1283775 (Ohio App., 12th 2000). A court found this notice and itemization insufficient because it did not explain what the landlord had bought or why it was necessary. Though you must provide half-way decent information, the standards are not rigorous. A landlord may rely on estimates for local adverts if they are used honestly and in good faith.

When all else fails, Small Claims Court

Small claims court is the ever-present threat that makes tenants pay their rent on time. Landlords always have the option to pursue redress via the courts. Often theft, property damages, or amount of back rent, dwarfs the value of a withheld security deposit. Though a method is available, it doesn’t mean it is the best option. Good attorneys always counsel clients to pursue solutions without legal intervention. Expediency and cheapness is good for landlords and a small claims action is anything but.

In a nutshell, a small claims action flows in the following order:

1) legally actionable event,

2) collecting evidence,

3) filing a complaint,

4) serving a complaint,

5) waiting for trial date,

6) conducting a trial,

7) waiting for judgment, and

8) collections

All through out this process there are attorney conversations, communications between tenant and landlord, collection of evidence, and waiting, the ever-present waiting for someone to respond.

There’s a lot of stuff going on and all of it costs time and money. This is where good legal counsel comes in. Best case scenario a stern phone call and demand letter from an attorney scares the other party into paying. If that works, awesome, problem solves. If it doesn’t, a good attorney will tell you the pro’s and con’s of going the lawsuit route. Sometimes, though a landlord feels slighted and hates a breaching tenant, the payoff just isn’t worth the going through the courts. At minimum, a lawsuit will take months, will probably require a landlord’s in court testimony, and to pay an attorney to appear in court and prosecute a case will eat a significant amount of money. Often the sign of a trustworthy attorney is one who tell you not to retain their services.

Disclaimer:

The information contained herein is general in nature, is provided for informational and educational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. The author nor Baron Law LLC cannot and does not guarantee that such information is accurate, complete, or timely. Laws of a particular state or laws that may be applicable in a given situation may impact the applicability, accuracy, or completeness of the preceding information. Further, federal and state laws and regulations are complex and subject to change. Changes in such laws often have material impact on estate planning and tax forecasts. As such, the author and Baron Law LLC make no warranties regarding the herein information or any results arising from its use. Furthermore, the author and Baron Law LLC disclaim any liability arising out of your use of, or any financial position taken in reliance on, such information. As always consult an attorney regarding your specific legal or tax situation.

Helping You and Your Loved Ones Plan for the Future

How to Lower Your Property Tax – Fighting Overvalued County Appraisals

 

What: Property Value Appraisal

Ohio operates on a system in which county auditors reappraise every piece of land and every building located in their county every six years. These base appraised values are then multiplied by local tax rates. This value is what is shown on local county auditor’s website and is often used as a base line when determining potential real estate taxes.

This reappraisal occurs in different counties at different times. Naturally, it is just too much for every local government to reappraise everything all at once. So, Ohio uses staggered reappraisal with different groups of counties undergoing reappraisal or updating during different tax years.

The following counties recently have either finished reappraisals or recently undergone updates:

Update Counties

 

Allen Coshocton
Guernsey Sandusky
Vinton  

 

Reappraisal Counties

 

Belmont Brown Crawford Cuyahoga Erie
Fayette Highland Huron Jefferson Lake
Lorain Lucas Morgan Muskingum Ottawa
Portage Stark Warren Williams  

 

Why: Property Reappraisal and Updating can result in a Bigger Tax Hit

Most importantly with reappraisal and updating, is that they can result in increased property values and consequently increased tax liability. Property owners in particular counties subject to reappraisal or update will see new property values reflected in their property tax bills that arrive in the mail either December or January.  This is an often-overlooked tax consequence that many people fail to plan for and can eat up an otherwise expected, and critical, tax refund. As such, many people desire to keep their property values low, at least in regards to taxation, and want to challenge their county auditor’s assessment of their property value. This is where experienced Cleveland legal attorneys come in.

How: Filing a Complaint to Challenge Property Valuation

The period for filing formal challenges to a county auditor appraisal generally begins January 1 and ends March 31 so contact an attorney sooner rather than later if you want to challenge a recent change in your property value. Generally, property owners can only challenge an assessment one time every three years.

How you challenge an improper auditor valuation is with a complaint filed with your local county board of revision where the property under dispute is located. This complaint is sometimes referred to as a “complaint against valuation” and asks 14 boilerplate questions. Questions such as has the property been sold within the last 3 years, have you made any improvements to the property, and your justifications for requesting a change in value.

This form is found on every county auditor’s website as well as the Ohio Department of Taxation’s website. A lot of individuals challenge land valuation so the process, at least in some ways, is streamlined. Note, however, if the property owner challenging valuation is a business, an attorney must almost always sign the complaint.

The most common reasons property values are challenged include declining market values in a depressed area, functionally and/or economically obsolete properties, declining rents in tandem with vacancies, and damage caused by non-human agency, such as fire, flood, earthquakes, or mold. Further, those who recently purchased a property in an arms-length transaction for less than the county auditor’s value, often have a strong case. Note, however, recent Ohio Supreme Court rulings adjusted the evidentiary rules for property owners looking to use a recent arms-length transaction as a basis to challenge the value of real property. The important takeaway from recent legal rulings is that appraisal evidence must be carefully considered before presentment to the board of revision. As such, experienced legal counsel should be retained before filing any tax appeal.

Once the complaint is filed and received by the board of revision, the board sets an evidentiary hearing. The hearing usually lasts between 15 to 30 minutes and takes place in front of a panel of decisions makers, usually the county auditor, county treasurer, and the president of the Board of County Commissioners. At this hearing, an attorney appears on your behalf and presents arguments, evidence, and witness testimony to prove the actual property value. Depending on the value or discrepancy of the value under dispute, other interested parties, such as local school districts, will appear via their own counsel and argue in favor of the higher value.

After the hearing, the board of revision makes its decision of the value of the real property. If you took the proper steps, gathered the right documents, and hired the right attorney, your property value should be changed to reflect the real value and you can avoid any significant tax hit in the near future.

When: When should I challenge?

As with every legal question asked of every attorney, the answer is always going to be, it depends. But as rule of thumb, if it seems like no rational buyer would purchase your property for what the auditor appraised it, calling your local Cleveland business attorney is probably a good move.

Another critical factor in assessing when to challenge is the sufficiency of evidence currently in your possession. This is where good legal counsel comes in. Attorneys are well-versed in hiring qualified appraisers to determine the initial overvaluing of the property, generating presentable reports for the evidentiary hearing, and identifying the relevant purchase transaction documents. If you are asking for a significant change in value, it is highly likely opposing attorneys will come out of the woodwork to counter your appeal. As such, experienced local counsel is often the difference between a waste of time and money and significant tax saving.

Disclaimer:

The information contained herein is general in nature, is provided for informational and educational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. The author nor Baron Law LLC cannot and does not guarantee that such information is accurate, complete, or timely. Laws of a particular state or laws that may be applicable in a given situation may impact the applicability, accuracy, or completeness of the preceding information. Further, federal and state laws and regulations are complex and subject to change. Changes in such laws often have material impact on estate planning and tax forecasts. As such, the author and Baron Law LLC make no warranties regarding the herein information or any results arising from its use. Furthermore, the author and Baron Law LLC disclaim any liability arising out of your use of, or any financial position taken in reliance on, such information. As always consult an attorney regarding your specific legal or tax situation.

Helping You and Your Loved Ones Plan for the Future

House in Trust with Mortgage

Can I Put My House In A Trust If It Has A Mortgage?

More and more people are becoming ever more concerned with either protecting their assets, maintaining eligibility for Medicaid, or leaving as much as possible to children and future grandkids. As such, more and more people are realizing the remarkable utility of trusts within their estate planning. One’s residence often represents the most significant asset an individual or couple possesses, and for many, financial assistance is needed to purchase it, that is mortgages. A common question presented to Cleveland estate planning attorneys is, can protect my house with a trust if it has a mortgage? As with any legal question, the answer is not black and white. 

  • What is trust? 

To understand how the what, when, and how of funding your trust with a mortgaged house, we must start with the basics, what is a trust? A trust, to put it simply, is a private agreement that allows a third party, a trustee, to manage the assets that are placed inside the trust for the benefit of trust beneficiaries. There are innumerable types of trusts, each with own its respective legal conventions and purposes. A critical aspect of trusts is that the assets housed within them usually aren’t counted as a part of the trust creator’s taxable estate. Thus, when the owner of the trust creates the trust and properly funds it, the assets go from the owner’s taxable estate to the trust. Afterwards, when the owner dies, the assets are not in the owner’s estate and subject to probate, and if the trust is drafted properly, are further ignored for the purposes of Medicaid eligibility. Further, trust assets pass via the beneficiary designations set down when the trust was created. These conveyances via beneficiary designation are much simpler, quicker, and cost-effective then going through probate and can be halted or expedited when circumstantially advantageous depending on the terms of the trust.   

  • When can a mortgage be called?  

The next basic to understand is when can your bank come after your house, i.e. a bank calling on a mortgage. A mortgage being called is when a financial institution/holder of the mortgage demands that the full amount of a mortgage be paid. When this can occur is conditional and which events will trigger are often denoted within the mountain of legal documents that physically make up your mortgage. In the context of funding a trust with a mortgaged house, your “due-on-sale clause” is what your estate planning attorney will be concerned about.    

A “due-on-sale clause” is a contract provision which authorizes a lender (your bank), at its discretion, to collect on the loan, i.e. declare it immediately due and payable if all or any part of the property, or an interest therein, securing the real property loan is sold or transferred without the lender’s prior written consent. This is fair because banks depend on mortgages getting paid off, or at least foreclosed, and the mortgage contract is between you and the bank, not the potential buyers and the bank.  

  • How can a mortgaged house in placed in trust without having the mortgage called?  

Any “due-on-sale clause” facially seems to be a death nail to any thought of funding trust with a mortgaged house, I mean, not many people have thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of dollars in liquid assets to immediately pay off a house. This is where the Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 comes into play and your estate planning attorney earns his money. The relevant part of the Garn-St. Germain Act in the context is 12 U.S. Code § 1701j–3, subsection d, as follows:  

(d) Exemption of specified transfers or dispositions.  With respect to a real property loan secured by a lien on residential real property containing less than five dwelling units, including a lien on the stock allocated to a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing corporation, or on a residential manufactured home, a lender may not exercise its option pursuant to a due-on-sale clause upon— […] 

(8) a transfer into an inter vivos trust in which the borrower is and remains a beneficiary and which does not relate to a transfer of rights of occupancy in the property; … 

So, to bring everything back down to Earth, this subsection possesses the two “prongs” of the Garn-St. Germain test, occupancy and beneficiary status for the trust makers for the mortgaged house. When there is a mortgage, a trust must be properly drafted to include specified reserved occupancy language in the trust to satisfy the occupancy prong of Garn-St. Germain. Simply, the trust makers, you, must specifically reserve the right to live in the house. Further, in some way, the trust makers, must be a trust beneficiary. The beneficiary status prong usually isn’t an issue with self-settled trusts given their nature, i.e. trusts made with the intent to provide some tangible benefit to the trust makers. An argument can be made that the reservation of occupancy rights inherently makes the settlors beneficiaries, however, more cautious estate planning attorneys further make trust makers income beneficiaries as well.  

Facially, drafting a trust to satisfy the prongs of the Garn-St. Germain test appears straight-forward, however, care must be taken when making your trust. The interplay between the actual language of a trust can have profound effects on taxation, ownership, inheritance, and eligibility for state and federal assistance programs whose admittance guidelines are based on income and asset thresholds.    

Now it is important to note that the issue of a mortgage is an issue apart from Medicaid eligibility, though often the two are interrelated. Addressing both concerns requires the same solution, precise drafting of trust language that is statutorily compliant.  Under the Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, placing the home in the MAPT does not trigger the “due on sale clause” contained in most mortgages provided certain steps are taken and legal standards are satisfied. Thus, with a knowledgeable estate planning attorney, you can remain Medicaid eligible and avoid Medicaid Estate Recovery, while still living in your home and paying the mortgage as you always have.  

Helping You And Your Loved Ones Plan For the Future

Estate Planning Attorney Baron Law

D.I.Y. Estate Planning: Saving a Dollar Now, Lose a Thousand Later

D.I.Y. Estate Planning:  Legal Zoom, Rocket Lawyer, and Youtube has granted an unprecedented amount of legal information to the public. Online forums, blogs, and television allow people to converse at any time and anywhere about pretty much anything. Nowadays ordinary people can undertake their own legal research, legal drafting, and, if necessary, personal representation.  Just because you can do something, however, doesn’t mean you should. Google searches and online videos are not a substitute for the advice and guidance of an experienced Ohio attorney and many people put themselves in a bad position after they convince themselves that an attorney is simply not necessary.

At the end of the day, do-it-yourself legal services is all about saving money and time. People don’t want to spend hundreds if not thousands of dollars on legal services and spend the time conversing and meeting with an attorney. Online legal materials, at least the cheap or free ones, are great at providing a false sense of security, that everything is straight-forward, do X and you’ll get Y.

Law firms hear the same problems and fix the same issues from self-representation every day. People who, after a quick google search, start drafting their own wills, LLCs, and contracts. People who put their faith in a disinterested corporation and a handful of document templates. Legal Zoom and Rocket Lawyer are not law firms and they do not represent you or your interests, they explicitly say so on their websites. They cannot review answers for legal sufficiency or check your information or drafting. An experienced Cleveland estate planning attorney, however, properly retained and with your best interests in mind will accomplish everything you expect, and often more.

Hired attorneys are under legal and professional obligations to do the best job possible. They don’t want to get sued for malpractice, they want you to pay your legal bill, and they want you to refer your friends and family. A particular client is concerned with a tree, while the attorney pays attention to the forest. A proper attorney will draft documents correctly with established legal conventions in mind, legalese isn’t something done for attorneys own benefit, it has a definitive and beneficial purpose. A lot of trouble is caused by D.I.Y. legal drafters and estate planners due to typos or the inclusion of legalese for legalese sake. Further, a knowledge of federal, state, and local law along with local procedure and jurisdictional customs is necessary to obtain a proper outcome with minimal cost and stress. At the end of the day, the legal system is made up of people, knowing who to talk to and when is a large reason why attorneys are retained.

We live in a brave new world, never before has so much legal information been so readily accessible to so many. In the same vein, never before has our lives been so complex and estate planning matches this. Attorneys do more than drafting and research, they advise you on the best ways to protect your family and assets in light of an ever-changing legal landscape and your own personal life and dreams. Often do-it-yourself legal services are simply not worth the risk and lull you into a false sense of security. Ultimately, you need your estate planning documents to do what you expect them to. As such, call of local Ohio estate planning attorney and make sure yours are done right.

Guardianship and Your Estate Planning

What is Guardianship?

A guardianship is where a person has the legal authority to care for another.

Are There Different Types of Guardianships?

Minor Children-The most common type of guardianship is with minors. If something happens to children under the age of 18, then you need someone to act as a parent. A misconception is that if you appoint someone as a godparent over your child, this does not give that person legal authority over your child.

Elderly- As we get older, we may need someone who can watch after us and make sure we are getting what we need and doing what we need to as well.

Adults with Special Needs- Guardianship is also needed for adults with special needs so that they have someone to watch over them.

How do I Establish Guardianship?

With planning, there are three ways to appoint someone as a legal guardian, through:

  • Power of Attorney
  • Will
  • Trust

Without planning, you have to go through a court order which is far more expensive and gives you less power.

When Should You Establish Guardianship?

Anyone with children should immediately establish guardianship. The thing is, you never know what is going to happen, and that is why it is best to plan for the future just in case. If it is on your mind, do it now.


If you need to establish guardianship over your children, an elderly loved one, or a loved one with special needs; you can also learn more by visiting our website or by contacting us at Baron Law today.

Gray Divorce – Important Issues to Consider

Back in the day, societal pressure, economic dependence, or religious dogma often kept couples together. Before the 1950’s, divorce and separation weren’t even talked about in causal conversation, now 1 in 2 marriages end in some sort of post-marriage separation. Before the 1960’s, women weren’t in the workforce in the positions and numbers they are today. And with the corresponding purchase power of living wages, higher salaries, and stable careers, people are less and less dependent on another person to survive or live comfortably.  Further, organized religion is less impactful and abundant than it was in the past, many people are “religious” or “spiritual”, but pastors and priests are seeing their flocks grow smaller and smaller. Consequently, religious pressure to stay married regardless of personal happiness is no longer there.  All these factors, along with many others, has led to the recent increase of divorces in older American couples.

Logically, it makes sense. Less societal pressure plus long lengths of time can cause even the strongest relationships to break.  This is why the concept of “gray divorce” is becoming more prevalent. Divorce and dissolution are always messy and complicated affairs, but the unique considerations for older adults and long-lived relationships represent a beast of a different color. A senior couple going through divorce needs an experienced hand to guide them through the tempestuous waters of Ohio domestic courts, but before you make that call to a Cleveland area divorce attorney, it is smart to know what to expect.

What is Gray Divorce?

Gray divorce” a term of art that refers to divorce among people aged 50 and over. This term has risen in popularity because divorce rates for people aged 50 and over has doubled since 1990. Further, divorce rates for people aged 65 and over has almost tripled since 1990. What’s the cause of this historic increase in divorce rates?

One theory for the climbing rates of senior divorce is the link between the currently aging baby boomer population and increased comfortability with the concept of divorce. Right now, the baby boomer generation, those aged from 51 to 69, make up the bulk of Americans living in retirement. Most of these baby boomers grew up during the 50’s and 60’s, when the historic divorce boom first occurred. At this time, the now aging boomers were youths living in a period of unprecedented martial instability, personal freedom, and gender liberation. The concepts learned in youth are now resurfacing later in life. Divorce statistics, and also common sense, tend to reflect this.

Remarriages tend to be less stable than first marriages and also, contrary to Disney movies, love tends to fade, especially after long lengths of time often filled with hills and valleys of personal growth and development. These days, with everyone living longer and more comfortably, throwing in the proverbial towel just makes more sense for more people. Over half of gray divorces involve couples married 20 or more years. Further, the divorce rate for seniors 50 and older in second marriage is almost double the rate of those who have only been married once. Senior divorce rates are at an all-time high and will likely stay at increased levels for the foreseeable future.

So “gray divorce” is here to stay, at least for now, so what’s the big deal? Well, for starters, long lives with a corresponding close bond like marriage means by the time retirement comes around, couples considering divorce must deal with high net worth, expansive family structures and relationships, and assets which are often not amenable with quick or clean post-martial division. Issues that younger married couples often don’t have to deal with.

Issues Specific with Gray Divorce

The longer a marriage lasts, the more intertwined a couple’s lives become and messier the split will be. Soon to be ex-spouses may think they have everything planned out and that they know where all of the martial assets are located, however, this is seldom, if ever, the case. Long marriages don’t usually end quickly, usually things fall apart over time with many instances of discussion, compromise, and remedial efforts, like marriage counselling, are attempted. During this slow spiral, thoughts of broken hearts and a soon-to-be confused family take precedence and less thought to property division is given. Only when the time comes for court intervention does the laborious world of court procedure and property division get attention.

Certain things immediately come to mind during divorce, like bank accounts, the martial home, car, and retirements accounts. These, however, are only the tip of the iceberg. There are also many easily-overlooked or hidden assets which need to be located, identified, cataloged, and negotiated by the parties and representing attorneys. The following list highlights only some of the unique issues and assets surrounding gray divorce:

  • Prepaid Burial Plots – who gets them?
  • Timeshare property – who get it? What if no one wants it, how do you liquidate it?
  • Patents, copyrights, royalties  – who gets them? Are they even divisible?
  • “Hidden value” items – rare items of personal property or antiques
  • Pets – pets are family and there’s no such thing as pet visitation agreements, who will get Scruffy?
  • Family get-togethers – Thanksgiving and Christmas just got a lot more complicated.
  • Cash/Gold/Precious Metals or Gems – these assets tend to go unreported to the IRS and are often hidden by one spouse.
  • Redrafting of estate plan – each person needs a new estate plan, how will you pay for retirement or healthcare costs now? Who will be your executor?

This list only touches on the many issues and decisions surrounding later life divorce. Divorce at any stage of life is a difficult process but for those individuals separating after spending years laying down roots, difficulties are magnified, and an experienced divorce attorney is a must. If you are thinking about separating from a long term partner, or find yourself in the middle of a separation in which you are way over your head, call the experienced divorce specialists at Baron Law.

Helping You and Your Loved Ones Plan for the Future

Six Month Creditor Claim Blog Photo

Six-Month Creditor Claim Period

Payment of the decedent’s debts is one of the basic responsibilities of an estate fiduciary. Ohio law specifically provides that the fiduciary of an estate shall proceed with diligence to pay the debts of the decedent. The critical questions remain, however, of who to pay and when to pay them. Unless a fiduciary is confident that the estate will have more than enough assets to pay all of the debts of the decedent, it may actually be better not to pay any debts received until the expiration of the creditor’s claim period. Under Ohio law, legitimate creditors have six months to present their claims. When such period expires, only the majority of legitimate debts claims against the estate will remain because if specified claims are not brought timely, they are foreclosed as a matter of law. At this time it can be determined whether or not there are sufficient probate assets with which to pay the debts or if the estate is insolvent. Most people, however, are ignorant of this little wrinkle of Ohio probate law. As such, when a loved one or friend passes, always contact an experienced Ohio probate attorney.

All too often a gung-ho fiduciary starts paying estate debts without a comprehensive accounting of estate assets or complete list of debts and obligations. This results in payment of debts which may have fallen off after the creditor’s claim period or, more seriously, if Ohio statutes are not fully complied during estate administration or assets are prematurely distributed, potential personal liability for a fiduciary. This means that if a surviving spouse, heir, beneficiary, or legitimate creditor should have gotten something from the estate that a fiduciary mistakenly gave away, the fiduciary must personally pay them their share, whatever the amount or value of the asset. This looming threat of personal liability is a significant reason why must appointed fiduciaries seek the counsel of experienced Cleveland estate planning and probate attorneys.

It cannot be understated the significant windfall potential for an estate if the six-month creditor’s claim period is waited out. The difficulty, however, is convincing friends, heirs, and devisees to be patient. Easier said than done. Now, after the debts of the estate are settled and verified and the time has come to pay them, unless the decedent’s will provides otherwise and/or in the absence of sufficient cash or other liquid assets to satisfy the debts, payment is made from the proceeds of the sale of: 1) tangible personal property which has not been specifically devised, then 2) specifically devised tangible personal property, then 3) non-specifically devised real property, and finally 4) specifically devised real property.

Good Ohio legal counselors always advise their client to be wary. A common point, but often overlooked one, of avoiding probate via beneficiary designations or trust usage is privacy. If everything passes via will, anyone anywhere can look up the estate online and see what is going on. A little information in the wrong hands can do a lot of damage. For example, a recent client came into a piece of property of the east side of Cleveland. Naturally, the previous owner failed to property taxes for many years. Lo a behold a nice company called the client and offered to negotiate, settle, then pay off the back taxes, for a nominal fee of course. Client, being uninformed, agreed on the spot and gave out his credit card information. The estate had been closed for quite some time, way past the six month creditor claim period, and now the client has new problems to deal with. All this could have been avoided with a quick 30-second phone call with their Cleveland estate planning attorney, don’t make the same mistake they did.

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Special Needs Self Settled Trusts

The Three Flavors of Special Needs Trusts: #3 Self-Settled Trusts

The federal “Special Needs Trust Fairness Act,” enacted in December of 2016, changed the law to allow individuals with special needs to create their own special needs trust. Ohio law, in response, has changed to coincide with this recent change. Currently, a mentally or physically disabled person may create a self-settled trust to hold their own assets and avoid them being counted for Medicaid or other public assistance program eligibility. Usually the need arises to make this type of trust when a person with special needs receives a legal settlement or inheritance while already eligible and receiving government assistance.

In a nutshell, “self-settled” special needs trusts are simply trusts established by the disabled beneficiary with the beneficiary’s own money and assets.  The devil, however, is in the details. Self-settled special needs trusts are, by regulatory requirements, only available to those persons who are 1) disabled and 2) are under 65 years of age. Further, the trust must be appropriately drafted to include language that mandates that the cost of Medicaid services actually paid on the individual’s behalf will be paid back to Ohio at the individual’s death. Thus, in an indirect way, the Department of Medicaid and other government program will get their money and be reimbursed, at the point of death, but the individual reliant on government assistance can still maintain eligibility. Therefore, both parties win. Note, however, the use and drafting of self-settled special needs trusts is nuanced. For example, with these trusts once a beneficiary reaches 65, the trust can no longer be funded with new assets or money. Yes, what is already in the trust will remain protected, but flexibility and control is lesser than with other types of special needs trusts. As such, always consult an experienced Cleveland area estate planning attorney when deciding which type of special needs trusts is appropriate for you and your family.

A self-settled special needs trusts are often referred to as a “Medicaid payback trust.” Both names refer to the same type of trust, however, the later name focuses on the primary characteristic, and requirement, of a self-settled special needs trust, in that any Medicaid resources or services received by the beneficiary will be paid back from the assets housed within the trust. A partial corollary is a Miller trust. A Miller trust houses income for those receiving nursing home care that would otherwise put them over the income thresholds for the Medicaid income cap. The income is kept in trust and used to pay for care, but relevant here, names the State of Ohio as a beneficiary under the trust. Thus, the State of Ohio can recover the total amount of Medicaid payments made to an individual after death.

Self-settled special needs trusts are different from Miller trusts in that they allow for a much greater breath of resources allowed to be placed in trust and does not set the State of Ohio as a direct beneficiary under the trust. Naming a person or entity as a trust beneficiary grants them certain rights and privileges which, in certain circumstances, can lead to headaches and issues for the special needs person and their families.

Often self-settled special needs trusts are estate planning instruments of last resort. Usually within the context of an unexpected windfall going to a person with special needs. Going the self-settled route also places administrative labor and costs of the trust on the special needs person. Further the requirements of specific drafting to be legally operative under Ohio law is usually something laypersons are ill-equipped to do themselves. As such, always consult an experienced Cleveland area estate planning attorney when deciding which type of special needs trust is good for you and your family. The stakes are too high to do things ill-informed.

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Special Needs Trust #2 photo

The Three Flavors of Special Needs Trusts: #2 Pooled Trusts

Baron Law LLC, Cleveland, Ohio, offers information for you to reflect upon while you are setting out looking for an estate planning attorney to help protect as much of your assets as you can. For more comprehensive information contact Baron Law Cleveland to draft your comprehensive estate plan to endeavor to keep more of your assets for your heirs and not hand them over to the government by way of taxes.

In order for those with special needs to qualify for government assistance programs such as Social Security Income and Medicaid, they must meet health, income, and asset thresholds. In other words, at least on paper, potential recipients must be quite poor to receive benefits. As such, just like to initially receive benefits, if special needs person is already receiving these benefits they must maintain the established thresholds of assets and income, or lack thereof. So, an inheritance, receiving an accident or medical malpractice settlement, or merely amassing too much money in an account can kick these people off of much needed benefits due to violating the standards set down by managing government entities and departments. In the hopes of preventing this outcome proactively, many people turn to special needs trusts.

Special Needs Trusts: Revisited

A special needs trust allows a disabled person to, theoretically, shelter an unlimited amount of assets for their needs without being disqualified from government benefits.  As hinted to above, this is because the assets held in a special needs trust properly drafted by experienced Cleveland attorneys are not counted as individual resources for purposes of qualifying for benefits.  On paper, at least in the eyes of the government and taxman, the beneficiaries of special needs trusts meet their asset and income thresholds. As a consequence, those special needs persons lucky enough to have a special needs trusts have access to more money, which can be spent on comforts, necessities, housing, and much needed medical care. Though we in this country are lucky to have government assistance programs available to us, anyone with a loved one solely dependent on them will tell you it’s certainly not enough. A properly drafted special needs trust will provide extra care and life satisfaction for disabled loved ones regardless of whether supporting family members are around for many years or pass away suddenly.

Pooled Special Needs Trusts

As mentioned in previous blogs, there are many “flavors” of special needs trusts. One such type is a “pooled” special needs trust. The focal point with this trust is maximizing potential gains from money funded into the trust, minimizing administrative costs, and delegating trust management to experienced personnel. In a nutshell, pooled trusts are a method to provide benefits of a special needs trusts without having to do the administrative legwork yourself.

As a rule, pooled trusts are required to be run by non-profit companies or organizations. The company or organization running the pooled trust drafts a master trust agreement that dictates the terms of the trust and the relationship between the trust and all participants.

In almost all cases, the pooled trust is run by a professional administrator. After establishment of the trust, money is transferred into the pooled trust to fund a particular individual’s stake in the trust. This single source of funding is then pooled with other people’s money to make one big pot, hence the name pooled trust. This pot is then controlled and invested, usually by an investment manager, similar to the way a hedge fund or other investment group operates.

The major takeaway is the “pooled” aspect of this particular trust. In theory, because there are many sources of funding brought together and utilized tactically, a pooled trust can make more stable investments and provide additional management services that other types of special needs trust cannot. Again, this increased investment power and potential returns coupled with lowered administrative costs, because it is borne by a large group instead of the individual and also an individual trustee does not need to be vetted and appointed, is also with the added benefit of the special needs beneficiary still being able to receive government benefits.

Unique Issues with Pooled Special Needs Trusts

The most obvious potential issue with pooled trusts is control, or lack thereof for individual participants. With a pooled trust, the trust assets are managed by people selected by the non-profit organization and not by anyone associated with an individual participant. This, in turn, means unassociated individuals and trust terms dictate how investments proceed and when disbursements occur, pretty much in a take it or leave it style. Once money is surrendered and placed into the pooled trust, individual participants how no say over how it is spent or when it will be distributed.  Additionally, it is a little known and little advertised fact that after the special needs beneficiary passes, some or all of their particular trust account will be kept to help with continued funding for the pooled trust. As always read the fine print and be completely sure you know what you’re signing up for.

With pooled trusts you make undertake a pro’s vs. con’s analysis, lack of control versus potential gains that might be indispensable in providing of critical healthcare costs for those with special needs. Consult an experienced Cleveland estate planning attorney who is familiar with drafting and administrating special needs trusts in order to find out potential options and they best course to take. Further, before signing on the dotted line to participate in any pooled trust, have an experienced Ohio estate planning attorney review the master trust agreement. Often these documents are very massive and have many hidden terms that can have profound impacts on your and your loved ones with special needs.

Helping You and Your Loved Ones Plan for the Future